Numerous important cities were founded by these colonists, such as Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna (now İzmir) and Byzantium (now Istanbul), the latter founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 657 BC.
The Tanzimat reforms of the 19th century, which aimed to modernise the Ottoman state, proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire.
The Assyrians conquered and settled parts of southeastern Turkey as early as 1950 BC until the year 612 BC. 1180 BC, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC.
The Library of Celsus in Ephesus was built by the Romans in 135 CE.
Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Greece to the west; Bulgaria to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south.
The Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
During the war, the Ottoman government committed ethnic cleansing or genocide against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek citizens.
The Turkish War of Independence (1919–1922), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against the occupying Allies, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date and in July 2012 was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.The earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians, non-Indo-European peoples who inhabited central and eastern Anatolia, respectively, as early as ca. Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually absorbed the Hattians and Hurrians ca. The first major empire in the area was founded by the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BC.In Northwest Turkey, the most significant tribal group in Thrace was the Odyrisians, founded by Teres I.The process of Hellenization that began with Alexander's conquest accelerated under Roman rule, and by the early centuries of the Christian Era the local Anatolian languages and cultures had become extinct, being largely replaced by ancient Greek language and culture.The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia.