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The contemporary Czech lands were originally inhabited by the Boii, a Celtic tribe for the first four centuries of the common era.
For centuries they jointly cultivated their land, creating works that still command respect and admiration today.
A year later in March 1939, Nazi Germany occupied the remaining rump Czech lands and declared it a protectorate of the Third Reich, while Slovakia was forced to secede as a puppet state.
This resulted in a brutal occupation that lasted until 1945, marked by mass arrests, torture, and the genocide of much of Czechoslovakia's Jewish and Romani population.
Vitus Cathedral, Karlštejn Castle, and the foundation of the city of Karlovy Vary.
Bohemia's golden era came to an end with Charles' death in 1378.
Following Charles' death, the kingdom slowly slid into religious anarchy.
The rise of Jan Hus and his Hussite followers in the 1410s violently rejected the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church, sparking a series of Hussite Wars that lasted until the 1430s, placing Czech proto-Protestant peasants and sympathetic lords against crusading Catholic armies.
Under his enlightened and largely peaceful reign, royal investment into Czech institutions, culture, education, and infrastructure received royal patronage.
Among some of those gifted with Charles IV's personal and financial support (many of which today bear the emperor's name) were Prague's Charles Bridge, Charles University, its New Town, St.
After World War II, the newly-reunited Czechoslovakia expelled nearly the entirety of its ethnic German population, as well as tens of thousands of Hungarians by force with the Beneš Decrees, an act of mass revenge that remains controversial to this day.
The country miraculously emerged from the conflict more or less intact as it avoided the air bombardments and pitched battles that reduced its neighbouring states to ruins.
The Bohemian Kingdom was inherited by the Habsburg-led Austrian Empire after King Louis II was killed fighting the Turks at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, an event that would have tremendous repercussions for the next four hundred years.